Digital Future

Digital Future

 
 
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The possibility of processing ever-larger volumes of data ever more rapidly has taken the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to a new level. Here, as in many areas of digital transformation, legislators are struggling to keep abreast of technical developments.

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The possibility of processing ever-larger volumes of data ever more rapidly has taken the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to a new level. Here, as in many areas of digital transformation, legislators are struggling to keep abreast of technical developments.

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The possibility of processing ever-larger volumes of data ever more rapidly has taken the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to a new level. Though users are not aware of this, even now many software products contain elements of AI, and the next few years will see an exponential rise in the applications – e.g. in areas such as smart contracts, deep learning and robotics. Here, as in many areas of digital transformation, legislators are struggling to keep abreast of technical developments.

With help from Gleiss Lutz, companies can rest assured that they are putting the structuring and implementation of their AI projects on a sound legal foundation, taking into account all the regulatory, liability and data protection requirements. One important element of the advice provided is the contractual architecture underpinning the use of AI – it is important here to ensure that the rights to the results generated by the use of AI are allocated to the respective parties in keeping with the way project is designed. We also advise on the question of whether Artificial Intelligence as such can be protected as intellectual property and whether the AI-generated results are eligible for protection.

We also provide support on the structuring of smart contracts and the liability issues around AI, including the question of who is liable in the event that AI violates intellectual property rights. The antitrust issues around the use of AI, e.g. in connection with market surveillance, market analysis and pricing using algorithms and with the automated exchange of competitively sensitive information between smart terminals (“machine-to-machine communication”) form another plank of our advisory offerings.

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The possibility of processing ever-larger volumes of data ever more rapidly has taken the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to a new level. Though users are not aware of this, even now many software products contain elements of AI, and the next few years will see an exponential rise in the applications – e.g. in areas such as smart contracts, deep learning and robotics. Here, as in many areas of digital transformation, legislators are struggling to keep abreast of technical developments.

With help from Gleiss Lutz, companies can rest assured that they are putting the structuring and implementation of their AI projects on a sound legal foundation, taking into account all the regulatory, liability and data protection requirements. One important element of the advice provided is the contractual architecture underpinning the use of AI – it is important here to ensure that the rights to the results generated by the use of AI are allocated to the respective parties in keeping with the way project is designed. We also advise on the question of whether Artificial Intelligence as such can be protected as intellectual property and whether the AI-generated results are eligible for protection.

We also provide support on the structuring of smart contracts and the liability issues around AI, including the question of who is liable in the event that AI violates intellectual property rights. The antitrust issues around the use of AI, e.g. in connection with market surveillance, market analysis and pricing using algorithms and with the automated exchange of competitively sensitive information between smart terminals (“machine-to-machine communication”) form another plank of our advisory offerings.

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There is much talk of forward-looking mobility concepts at the moment and all of them have one thing in common, namely automated/autonomous steering, with the human driver/pilot being successively displaced by computers.

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There is much talk of forward-looking mobility concepts at the moment and all of them have one thing in common, namely automated/autonomous steering, with the human driver/pilot being successively displaced by computers.

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There is much talk of forward-looking mobility concepts at the moment and all of them have one thing in common, namely automated/autonomous steering, with the human driver/pilot being successively displaced by computers. Automated/autonomous driving is much more than just an idea when it comes to how we see ourselves moving around in future – these technologies are developing apace and some are already market-ready, not only for road traffic, but also for other means of transporting people and goods, e.g. by shuttle, train, ship or plane.

The technical challenges apart, legal underpinning is vital at every stage of the process from inception to completion if these projects are to be successful. The reason being that a regulatory roadmap is needed to set the limits and requirements for these systems, and new developments need to be approved before they can come to market. In addition to that, manufacturers will find themselves confronted with a whole raft of issues to do with liability and product compliance.

As one of the leading law firms acting on behalf of the automotive sector, we have been at the coalface, so to speak, since day one and have already seen many a project through to a successful conclusion. For example, we prepare the contracts between suppliers, manufacturers and service providers, map out long-term data protection concepts (e.g. for communication between networked means of transport) and assess the products in question with an eye to the important aspects of approval, safety and liability. These include, among other things, the obligations incumbent on providers of modern forms of mobility when it comes to product implementation and surveillance. These are a central pillar for guaranteeing the safety of all automated and autonomous systems.

Besides the product liability aspect, we also examine liability issues in connection with new forms of mobility from the point of view of the structuring options offered by civil law, dealing with shifting liability, and the insurability of risks. Last but not least, we are also able to offer advice on all the criminal, public-law and antitrust issues around forward-looking, usually data-based, mobility concepts. Because mobility usually doesn’t stop at borders, we also deal with all product-related and regulatory questions in an international context.

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There is much talk of forward-looking mobility concepts at the moment and all of them have one thing in common, namely automated/autonomous steering, with the human driver/pilot being successively displaced by computers. Automated/autonomous driving is much more than just an idea when it comes to how we see ourselves moving around in future – these technologies are developing apace and some are already market-ready, not only for road traffic, but also for other means of transporting people and goods, e.g. by shuttle, train, ship or plane.

The technical challenges apart, legal underpinning is vital at every stage of the process from inception to completion if these projects are to be successful. The reason being that a regulatory roadmap is needed to set the limits and requirements for these systems, and new developments need to be approved before they can come to market. In addition to that, manufacturers will find themselves confronted with a whole raft of issues to do with liability and product compliance.

As one of the leading law firms acting on behalf of the automotive sector, we have been at the coalface, so to speak, since day one and have already seen many a project through to a successful conclusion. For example, we prepare the contracts between suppliers, manufacturers and service providers, map out long-term data protection concepts (e.g. for communication between networked means of transport) and assess the products in question with an eye to the important aspects of approval, safety and liability. These include, among other things, the obligations incumbent on providers of modern forms of mobility when it comes to product implementation and surveillance. These are a central pillar for guaranteeing the safety of all automated and autonomous systems.

Besides the product liability aspect, we also examine liability issues in connection with new forms of mobility from the point of view of the structuring options offered by civil law, dealing with shifting liability, and the insurability of risks. Last but not least, we are also able to offer advice on all the criminal, public-law and antitrust issues around forward-looking, usually data-based, mobility concepts. Because mobility usually doesn’t stop at borders, we also deal with all product-related and regulatory questions in an international context.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18791', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Big Data', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18697', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564577870', 'changed' => '1564653221', 'tnid' => '18387', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564653221', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Big Data', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Big Data', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2707', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'big_data1.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://big_data1.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '578116', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Big data is one of the key terms at the heart of digital transformation. IT applications are today in a position to analyse huge quantities of unstructured data at high speed – and their capacities continue to grow. This enables the making of new findings, the uncovering of underlying structures, and the preparation of forecasts in many different areas of our lives.

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Big data is one of the key terms at the heart of digital transformation. IT applications are today in a position to analyse huge quantities of unstructured data at high speed – and their capacities continue to grow. This enables the making of new findings, the uncovering of underlying structures, and the preparation of forecasts in many different areas of our lives.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Big data is one of the key terms at the heart of digital transformation. IT applications are today in a position to analyse huge quantities of unstructured data at high speed – and their capacities continue to grow. This enables the making of new findings, the uncovering of underlying structures, and the preparation of forecasts in many different areas of our lives. The digital collection, linkage and analysis of data not only make new kinds of data-based business models possible – they are is also of fundamental importance when it comes to optimising products and services in supply chain management, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Industry 4.0 applications.

Gleiss Lutz provides support for big data projects from conception through to completion, including dealing with the specific data protection and competition issues raised by practical application. Taking the regulatory requirements as a basis we structure the contracts for cooperations between businesses, developers and their project partners, whilst also having regard for the protection of know-how and data and the involvement of data protection officers and employee representatives in the process.

Our data protection experts assist with the compliant structuring of storage and processing processes, also with a view to aspects such as privacy by design and the requirements around data privacy impact assessments. We negotiate with works councils on our clients’ behalf ahead of the introduction of big data-based people analytics applications or IT security tools. And, last but not least, we draft the privacy policies that the law requires for employees, customers and business partners in connection with big data projects.

Antitrust violations and risks need to be avoided in the digital, frequently automated competition landscape, too. Companies can come to us for advice on all questions that arise at the interfaces of big data, digital economy and antitrust law – from the antitrust and competition perspective, we focus especially on data pooling, data sharing and data-related cooperations. We also handle the setting-up and implementation of antitrust compliance structures in data-based business models and Industry 4.0 applications.

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Big data is one of the key terms at the heart of digital transformation. IT applications are today in a position to analyse huge quantities of unstructured data at high speed – and their capacities continue to grow. This enables the making of new findings, the uncovering of underlying structures, and the preparation of forecasts in many different areas of our lives. The digital collection, linkage and analysis of data not only make new kinds of data-based business models possible – they are is also of fundamental importance when it comes to optimising products and services in supply chain management, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Industry 4.0 applications.

Gleiss Lutz provides support for big data projects from conception through to completion, including dealing with the specific data protection and competition issues raised by practical application. Taking the regulatory requirements as a basis we structure the contracts for cooperations between businesses, developers and their project partners, whilst also having regard for the protection of know-how and data and the involvement of data protection officers and employee representatives in the process.

Our data protection experts assist with the compliant structuring of storage and processing processes, also with a view to aspects such as privacy by design and the requirements around data privacy impact assessments. We negotiate with works councils on our clients’ behalf ahead of the introduction of big data-based people analytics applications or IT security tools. And, last but not least, we draft the privacy policies that the law requires for employees, customers and business partners in connection with big data projects.

Antitrust violations and risks need to be avoided in the digital, frequently automated competition landscape, too. Companies can come to us for advice on all questions that arise at the interfaces of big data, digital economy and antitrust law – from the antitrust and competition perspective, we focus especially on data pooling, data sharing and data-related cooperations. We also handle the setting-up and implementation of antitrust compliance structures in data-based business models and Industry 4.0 applications.

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Blockchain is seen as one of the most promising and revolutionary new technologies: Crypto assets create new investment possibilities, token sales are heralding a sea-change in the way in which capital is raised, and smart contracts promise the extensive automation of complex agreements and bulk transactions.

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Blockchain is seen as one of the most promising and revolutionary new technologies: Crypto assets create new investment possibilities, token sales are heralding a sea-change in the way in which capital is raised, and smart contracts promise the extensive automation of complex agreements and bulk transactions.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Blockchain is seen as one of the most promising and revolutionary new technologies: Crypto assets create new investment possibilities, token sales are heralding a sea-change in the way in which capital is raised, and smart contracts promise the extensive automation of complex agreements and bulk transactions. Besides their use in the FinTech sector, blockchain applications are also being tested for, among other things, manipulation-resistant supply chains and voting systems and in the areas of data and identity management.

Blockchain and its potential uses do not necessarily sit well with German law, however; to date there is no separate legislation specifically governing blockchain applications. Checks as to what information can be input into a blockchain and what technical adjustments are required, if any, therefore have to be based on the general legislation.

Our service portfolio includes the setup of compliance structures for the use of blockchains as well as the obligations and liability risks that need to be borne in mind when taking on key positions on a private blockchain. We evaluate the risks involved in inputting data onto a blockchain, especially as a result of the sometimes unavoidable mirroring of data on external nodes. We also examine the data protection and antitrust requirements that can run counter to blockchain transparency and immutability and need to be heeded on account of the transparency of blockchain data.

', 'format' => 'full_html', 'safe_value' => '

Blockchain is seen as one of the most promising and revolutionary new technologies: Crypto assets create new investment possibilities, token sales are heralding a sea-change in the way in which capital is raised, and smart contracts promise the extensive automation of complex agreements and bulk transactions. Besides their use in the FinTech sector, blockchain applications are also being tested for, among other things, manipulation-resistant supply chains and voting systems and in the areas of data and identity management.

Blockchain and its potential uses do not necessarily sit well with German law, however; to date there is no separate legislation specifically governing blockchain applications. Checks as to what information can be input into a blockchain and what technical adjustments are required, if any, therefore have to be based on the general legislation.

Our service portfolio includes the setup of compliance structures for the use of blockchains as well as the obligations and liability risks that need to be borne in mind when taking on key positions on a private blockchain. We evaluate the risks involved in inputting data onto a blockchain, especially as a result of the sometimes unavoidable mirroring of data on external nodes. We also examine the data protection and antitrust requirements that can run counter to blockchain transparency and immutability and need to be heeded on account of the transparency of blockchain data.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18798', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Crypto Assets', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18704', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564585727', 'changed' => '1564653202', 'tnid' => '18385', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564653202', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Crypto Assets', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Crypto Assets', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2705', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'crypto_assets1.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://crypto_assets1.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '536097', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Auf Basis einer Blockchain können Vermögenswerte in Form von Crypto-Assets genauso kostengünstig, schnell und sicher über das Internet übertragen werden wie Informationen. Möglich machen dies Tokens, eine Art digitale Wertmarke, die exklusiv einem Inhaber zugeordnet werden kann und als solche handelbar ist.

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Auf Basis einer Blockchain können Vermögenswerte in Form von Crypto-Assets genauso kostengünstig, schnell und sicher über das Internet übertragen werden wie Informationen. Möglich machen dies Tokens, eine Art digitale Wertmarke, die exklusiv einem Inhaber zugeordnet werden kann und als solche handelbar ist.

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In crypto-form, assets can be transferred over the internet on blockchain basis just as cheaply, quickly and safely as information. This is made possible by digital tokens that can be exclusively attributed to one owner and are tradable as such. Tokens such as bitcoin are known as cryptocurrencies – they have no intrinsic value of their own, but serve as a universal means of exchange. Tokens can also have a real value, however – because they are highly marketable, generally speaking they can also stand for property, shares, claims or money.

In many EU countries the legal framework for crypto-assets is still quite shaky. The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority considers currency tokens to be financial instruments within the meaning of the Banking Act. Depending on their structure, however, tokens can also be regarded as securities or investments. For that reason, the matter of whether a regulatory authorisation is required – for financial commission business, investment advice and brokerage, proprietary trading, or for the operation of a multilateral trading facility in Germany – must always be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Gleiss Lutz’s services regarding crypto-assets extend to all rights and risks around the purchase of crypto-assets by companies and private individuals. We provide guidance to trading platforms and wallet providers on the matter of their obligations under money laundering laws and set up compliance structures for the safekeeping of third-party crypto-assets. We examine whether regulatory and merger control authorisation obligations apply, advise on the tokenisation of real assets and on tax issues in connection with the purchase or sale of crypto-assets. Expertise on alternative FinTech solutions, above all from the regulatory, data protection, IP/IT, antitrust and consumer protection perspectives, rounds off our service portfolio in the area of crypto-assets

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In crypto-form, assets can be transferred over the internet on blockchain basis just as cheaply, quickly and safely as information. This is made possible by digital tokens that can be exclusively attributed to one owner and are tradable as such. Tokens such as bitcoin are known as cryptocurrencies – they have no intrinsic value of their own, but serve as a universal means of exchange. Tokens can also have a real value, however – because they are highly marketable, generally speaking they can also stand for property, shares, claims or money.

In many EU countries the legal framework for crypto-assets is still quite shaky. The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority considers currency tokens to be financial instruments within the meaning of the Banking Act. Depending on their structure, however, tokens can also be regarded as securities or investments. For that reason, the matter of whether a regulatory authorisation is required – for financial commission business, investment advice and brokerage, proprietary trading, or for the operation of a multilateral trading facility in Germany – must always be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Gleiss Lutz’s services regarding crypto-assets extend to all rights and risks around the purchase of crypto-assets by companies and private individuals. We provide guidance to trading platforms and wallet providers on the matter of their obligations under money laundering laws and set up compliance structures for the safekeeping of third-party crypto-assets. We examine whether regulatory and merger control authorisation obligations apply, advise on the tokenisation of real assets and on tax issues in connection with the purchase or sale of crypto-assets. Expertise on alternative FinTech solutions, above all from the regulatory, data protection, IP/IT, antitrust and consumer protection perspectives, rounds off our service portfolio in the area of crypto-assets

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Cyber security is one of the key issues that has a significant influence on the digital transformation process. With each new media report on hacks and data theft, the pressure mounts on companies, governments and supervisory authorities.

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Cyber security is one of the key issues that has a significant influence on the digital transformation process. With each new media report on hacks and data theft, the pressure mounts on companies, governments and supervisory authorities.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Cyber security is one of the key issues that has a significant influence on the digital transformation process. With each new media report on hacks and data theft, the pressure mounts on companies, governments and supervisory authorities. In addition to technical security measures, the “right” organisation and clear rules of conduct for day-to-day work and crisis situations are crucial for dealing with the wide range of threat scenarios.

From a legal perspective, cyber security is an interdisciplinary topic in connection with which a number of laws must be taken into account. These include more general regulations such as the Telemedia Act, the Telecommunications Act or the General Data Protection Regulation, as well as numerous special laws such as the Act on the Federal Office for Information Security, the Atomic Energy Act and the Energy Industry Act. The Banking Act or the Fiscal Code are also relevant for cyber security.

Gleiss Lutz’s full service approach comes into play here in particular: Lawyers from different legal areas – from IT to employment and data protection, compliance, antitrust, banking and finance through to tax law – work hand in hand on projects in connection with IT, data and network security. We help companies to develop tailor-made cyber security policies and establish cyber security-related risk assessment and preventive measures as fixed components of their compliance systems. We draw up and negotiate outsourcing, housing, hosting, cloud computing as well as SaaS agreements, in particular in the areas relevant for security. We are particularly experienced when it comes to the legal assessment and legal protection of critical infrastructures. We represent our clients vis-à-vis the supervisory authorities as well as in connection with possible violations of security regulations and the associated liability issues.

', 'format' => 'full_html', 'safe_value' => '

Cyber security is one of the key issues that has a significant influence on the digital transformation process. With each new media report on hacks and data theft, the pressure mounts on companies, governments and supervisory authorities. In addition to technical security measures, the “right” organisation and clear rules of conduct for day-to-day work and crisis situations are crucial for dealing with the wide range of threat scenarios.

From a legal perspective, cyber security is an interdisciplinary topic in connection with which a number of laws must be taken into account. These include more general regulations such as the Telemedia Act, the Telecommunications Act or the General Data Protection Regulation, as well as numerous special laws such as the Act on the Federal Office for Information Security, the Atomic Energy Act and the Energy Industry Act. The Banking Act or the Fiscal Code are also relevant for cyber security.

Gleiss Lutz’s full service approach comes into play here in particular: Lawyers from different legal areas – from IT to employment and data protection, compliance, antitrust, banking and finance through to tax law – work hand in hand on projects in connection with IT, data and network security. We help companies to develop tailor-made cyber security policies and establish cyber security-related risk assessment and preventive measures as fixed components of their compliance systems. We draw up and negotiate outsourcing, housing, hosting, cloud computing as well as SaaS agreements, in particular in the areas relevant for security. We are particularly experienced when it comes to the legal assessment and legal protection of critical infrastructures. We represent our clients vis-à-vis the supervisory authorities as well as in connection with possible violations of security regulations and the associated liability issues.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18790', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Data Protection', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18696', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564577693', 'changed' => '1564653184', 'tnid' => '18357', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564653184', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Data Protection', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Data Protection', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2692', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'data_protection.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://data_protection.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '400833', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Data is the driving force of digital transformation and at the same time a key motor of the economy in the modern world. The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has tightened the legal requirements businesses have to meeting when collecting and processing personal data.

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Data is the driving force of digital transformation and at the same time a key motor of the economy in the modern world. The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has tightened the legal requirements businesses have to meeting when collecting and processing personal data.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Data is the driving force of digital transformation and at the same time a key motor of the economy in the modern world. The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has tightened the legal requirements businesses have to meeting when collecting and processing personal data; companies that violate the GDPR can find themselves on the receiving end of very significant fines. The upcoming ePrivacy Regulation will bring with it further challenges, first and foremost for the internet-based economy.

The advice our lawyers offer on data protection addresses the very root of the issues involved, targeting, as it does, products and services at the early stages of their development. We support our clients when it comes to meeting the statutory demands for data protection-compliant technologies (“privacy by design”). And we also walk our clients through the various stages of setting up effective data protection compliance structures at the heart of their businesses.

In hybrid teams made up of IT, data protection and employment experts, we draw up the data protection documents required by law, such as lists of processing activities, data protection guidelines, information sheets for employees, as well as data protection contracts and data protection statement for websites. We provide support for IT and outsourcing projects (especially around cloud computing) with an eye to the data protection aspects and take care of negotiations with the works council with a view to introducing measures to meet the data protection requirements.

Our data protection lawyers have international experience and frequently handle not only national, but also cross-border data protection projects, e.g. on the subject of the exchange of data within global corporate groups or the involvement of service providers in countries outside the EU.

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Data is the driving force of digital transformation and at the same time a key motor of the economy in the modern world. The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has tightened the legal requirements businesses have to meeting when collecting and processing personal data; companies that violate the GDPR can find themselves on the receiving end of very significant fines. The upcoming ePrivacy Regulation will bring with it further challenges, first and foremost for the internet-based economy.

The advice our lawyers offer on data protection addresses the very root of the issues involved, targeting, as it does, products and services at the early stages of their development. We support our clients when it comes to meeting the statutory demands for data protection-compliant technologies (“privacy by design”). And we also walk our clients through the various stages of setting up effective data protection compliance structures at the heart of their businesses.

In hybrid teams made up of IT, data protection and employment experts, we draw up the data protection documents required by law, such as lists of processing activities, data protection guidelines, information sheets for employees, as well as data protection contracts and data protection statement for websites. We provide support for IT and outsourcing projects (especially around cloud computing) with an eye to the data protection aspects and take care of negotiations with the works council with a view to introducing measures to meet the data protection requirements.

Our data protection lawyers have international experience and frequently handle not only national, but also cross-border data protection projects, e.g. on the subject of the exchange of data within global corporate groups or the involvement of service providers in countries outside the EU.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18801', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Digital Health', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18707', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564586049', 'changed' => '1564653177', 'tnid' => '18351', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564653177', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Digital Health', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Digital Health', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2693', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'digital_health.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://digital_health.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '189635', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Huge advances in medical and information technology are transforming the healthcare sector in a special way. Innovative approaches in the area of telemedicine are changing how doctors and patients interact.

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Huge advances in medical and information technology are transforming the healthcare sector in a special way. Innovative approaches in the area of telemedicine are changing how doctors and patients interact.

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Huge advances in medical and information technology are transforming the healthcare sector in a special way. Innovative approaches in the area of telemedicine – from online consultation hours through to a healthcare app – are changing how doctors and patients interact. Electronically assisted monitoring, online coordination, management and evaluation of treatment methods help to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of patient care and, at the same time, offer possible solutions for the ongoing depletion of medical care in economically weak regions. New personalised production methods such as the 3D printing of drugs or medical devices as well as treatment with gene-modified cell therapies are giving rise to new treatment options while, at the same time, creating challenges for the healthcare system. AI applications already continuously monitor vital functions of their users as well as, increasingly, harmful effects such as excessive solar radiation. In the healthcare system of the future, the treating physicians will only be consulted in a second step, and only in the case of serious illnesses. AI applications will perform the initial diagnosis. At the same time, the doctors will be notified immediately via data transmission if their patients have abnormal health markers and will be able to actively arrange for the necessary action to be taken.

For many years now Gleiss Lutz has been tracking the technical developments as well as the legislator’s activities in the area of digital health. As advisors and experts, our lawyers are heavily involved in the restructuring of the regulatory framework of the healthcare market in the area of drugs and medical devices. They provide their clients with competent advice on all regulatory, medical law, IT and data protection-related matters as well as on issues concerning liability.

Our lawyers’ experience has come from working on large, complex IT infrastructure projects in the healthcare sector (e.g. outsourcing of computer centres), advising on innovations in medical treatment and in the manufacture as well as distribution of drugs and medical devices. We continuously advise healthcare providers in the online sector on the development of new business models. We are very familiar with the relevant questions concerning data storage and transmission between service providers in the medical sector (electronic health card, electronic patient file, electronic doctor’s letter, etc.), the setting up of new communication platforms by social security institutions, evaluation and comparison portals on the internet or the development of new service offerings at interfaces between stationary and outpatient care by means of electronic databases and platforms.

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Huge advances in medical and information technology are transforming the healthcare sector in a special way. Innovative approaches in the area of telemedicine – from online consultation hours through to a healthcare app – are changing how doctors and patients interact. Electronically assisted monitoring, online coordination, management and evaluation of treatment methods help to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of patient care and, at the same time, offer possible solutions for the ongoing depletion of medical care in economically weak regions. New personalised production methods such as the 3D printing of drugs or medical devices as well as treatment with gene-modified cell therapies are giving rise to new treatment options while, at the same time, creating challenges for the healthcare system. AI applications already continuously monitor vital functions of their users as well as, increasingly, harmful effects such as excessive solar radiation. In the healthcare system of the future, the treating physicians will only be consulted in a second step, and only in the case of serious illnesses. AI applications will perform the initial diagnosis. At the same time, the doctors will be notified immediately via data transmission if their patients have abnormal health markers and will be able to actively arrange for the necessary action to be taken.

For many years now Gleiss Lutz has been tracking the technical developments as well as the legislator’s activities in the area of digital health. As advisors and experts, our lawyers are heavily involved in the restructuring of the regulatory framework of the healthcare market in the area of drugs and medical devices. They provide their clients with competent advice on all regulatory, medical law, IT and data protection-related matters as well as on issues concerning liability.

Our lawyers’ experience has come from working on large, complex IT infrastructure projects in the healthcare sector (e.g. outsourcing of computer centres), advising on innovations in medical treatment and in the manufacture as well as distribution of drugs and medical devices. We continuously advise healthcare providers in the online sector on the development of new business models. We are very familiar with the relevant questions concerning data storage and transmission between service providers in the medical sector (electronic health card, electronic patient file, electronic doctor’s letter, etc.), the setting up of new communication platforms by social security institutions, evaluation and comparison portals on the internet or the development of new service offerings at interfaces between stationary and outpatient care by means of electronic databases and platforms.

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Innovative technologies have taken hold in almost all areas of the financial sector. InsurTechs, WealthTechs and PayTechs are entering the market, usually in the form of start-ups. They make use of the possibilities offered by decentralised data storage and mobile communication to offer their customers especially user-friendly solutions.

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Innovative technologies have taken hold in almost all areas of the financial sector. InsurTechs, WealthTechs and PayTechs are entering the market, usually in the form of start-ups. They make use of the possibilities offered by decentralised data storage and mobile communication to offer their customers especially user-friendly solutions.

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Innovative technologies have taken hold in almost all areas of the financial sector. InsurTechs, WealthTechs and PayTechs are entering the market, usually in the form of start-ups. They make use of the possibilities offered by decentralised data storage and mobile communication to offer their customers especially user-friendly solutions. Many of these FinTechs are based on business models that can dispense with regulatory authorisations because they simply broker services that are provided by institutions subject to supervision. But increasingly FinTechs are themselves seeking regulatory authorisations or cooperate with white label banks to open up additional areas of business.

Gleiss Lutz has many years of experience in advising investors and real economy companies on the acquisition of, and cooperation with, FinTechs. We provide guidance to FinTechs on the options available if they wish to avoid having to apply for regulatory authorisation and on the brokering of insurance policies, loans and deposits without authorisation. We are also able to assist with the procedure for obtaining the authorisations necessary to operate as a bank or financial services institution.

Our service portfolio encompasses advising on the relevant corporate and employment law issues, IP/IT and data protection, as well as antitrust and merger control. We are also familiar with all the legal aspects around the various applications of blockchain technology and artificial intelligence and the responsibility of managing directors for the outcome of AI-based decisions. At the same time we advise on the regulatory framework for “robo advice” and “robo trading” and on cloud-based solutions and strategies for banks and securities companies.

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Innovative technologies have taken hold in almost all areas of the financial sector. InsurTechs, WealthTechs and PayTechs are entering the market, usually in the form of start-ups. They make use of the possibilities offered by decentralised data storage and mobile communication to offer their customers especially user-friendly solutions. Many of these FinTechs are based on business models that can dispense with regulatory authorisations because they simply broker services that are provided by institutions subject to supervision. But increasingly FinTechs are themselves seeking regulatory authorisations or cooperate with white label banks to open up additional areas of business.

Gleiss Lutz has many years of experience in advising investors and real economy companies on the acquisition of, and cooperation with, FinTechs. We provide guidance to FinTechs on the options available if they wish to avoid having to apply for regulatory authorisation and on the brokering of insurance policies, loans and deposits without authorisation. We are also able to assist with the procedure for obtaining the authorisations necessary to operate as a bank or financial services institution.

Our service portfolio encompasses advising on the relevant corporate and employment law issues, IP/IT and data protection, as well as antitrust and merger control. We are also familiar with all the legal aspects around the various applications of blockchain technology and artificial intelligence and the responsibility of managing directors for the outcome of AI-based decisions. At the same time we advise on the regulatory framework for “robo advice” and “robo trading” and on cloud-based solutions and strategies for banks and securities companies.

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining in importance in many areas of daily life. Whether in smart homes and cities or networked factories – the use of voice control, M2M (machine-to-machine), C2C (car-to-car) and C2I (car-to-infrastructure) communication and control mechanisms in industrial “just-in-time” production is on the rise.

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining in importance in many areas of daily life. Whether in smart homes and cities or networked factories – the use of voice control, M2M (machine-to-machine), C2C (car-to-car) and C2I (car-to-infrastructure) communication and control mechanisms in industrial “just-in-time” production is on the rise.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining in importance in many areas of daily life. Whether in smart homes and cities or networked factories – the use of voice control, M2M (machine-to-machine), C2C (car-to-car) and C2I (car-to-infrastructure) communication and control mechanisms in industrial “just-in-time” production is on the rise. Networked devices also make our private everyday lives easier. In a business context, devices of this kind help reduce costs because they allow predictable, repetitive tasks, for example, to be carried out entirely by automated means.

IoT throws up many legal issues of a new kind. Who are the contracting parties when machines interact with each other? And if there’s nobody to actually negotiate the contents of a contract, what about accepting the general terms and conditions of business? How can machine-to-machine payment transactions be automated so that they are legally watertight? And who is liable when data is transferred, and possibly lost?

We offer all-round support for the structuring of innovative IoT projects, paying special attention to all the requirements imposed by data protection, regulatory law, the law governing business terms and conditions, and liability law. We advise on the manufacture of IoT devices with an eye to the product-related and regulatory requirements, but also on the use of third-party software (e.g. open source software as part of the firmware for devices of this kind). Structuring and negotiating IoT project contracts is another focus of ours, including development contracts, contracts for distribution systems for IoT products, cooperation contracts between suppliers of various IoT devices, and end user conditions.

Because data is currently not protected by either intellectual property rights or copyright, we assist with the design of contractual arrangements to secure rights in the data generated and aggregated in the context of the use of IoT products. Keeping in mind the data protection aspects, we draft consents for the use and processing of personal data and advise on the aspect of justification under the GDPR. We are also experienced in handling liability issues in connection with IoT, especially where IoT and AI come together. Last but not least, we advise our clients and represent their interests in the event of external data breaches (e.g. by hackers).

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining in importance in many areas of daily life. Whether in smart homes and cities or networked factories – the use of voice control, M2M (machine-to-machine), C2C (car-to-car) and C2I (car-to-infrastructure) communication and control mechanisms in industrial “just-in-time” production is on the rise. Networked devices also make our private everyday lives easier. In a business context, devices of this kind help reduce costs because they allow predictable, repetitive tasks, for example, to be carried out entirely by automated means.

IoT throws up many legal issues of a new kind. Who are the contracting parties when machines interact with each other? And if there’s nobody to actually negotiate the contents of a contract, what about accepting the general terms and conditions of business? How can machine-to-machine payment transactions be automated so that they are legally watertight? And who is liable when data is transferred, and possibly lost?

We offer all-round support for the structuring of innovative IoT projects, paying special attention to all the requirements imposed by data protection, regulatory law, the law governing business terms and conditions, and liability law. We advise on the manufacture of IoT devices with an eye to the product-related and regulatory requirements, but also on the use of third-party software (e.g. open source software as part of the firmware for devices of this kind). Structuring and negotiating IoT project contracts is another focus of ours, including development contracts, contracts for distribution systems for IoT products, cooperation contracts between suppliers of various IoT devices, and end user conditions.

Because data is currently not protected by either intellectual property rights or copyright, we assist with the design of contractual arrangements to secure rights in the data generated and aggregated in the context of the use of IoT products. Keeping in mind the data protection aspects, we draft consents for the use and processing of personal data and advise on the aspect of justification under the GDPR. We are also experienced in handling liability issues in connection with IoT, especially where IoT and AI come together. Last but not least, we advise our clients and represent their interests in the event of external data breaches (e.g. by hackers).

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Blockchain technology is laying the foundation for the automation of more and more hitherto human-driven processes. One key element is “smart contracts” – computer protocols that are not only a technical manifestation of contracts, but actually perform them autonomously.

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Blockchain technology is laying the foundation for the automation of more and more hitherto human-driven processes. One key element is “smart contracts” – computer protocols that are not only a technical manifestation of contracts, but actually perform them autonomously.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Blockchain technology is laying the foundation for the automation of more and more hitherto human-driven processes. One key element is “smart contracts” – computer protocols that are not only a technical manifestation of contracts, but actually perform them autonomously. While it will continue to be up to natural and legal persons to negotiate the subject matter of their transactions, smart contracts can completely take over the performance of said transactions, greatly simplifying in this way the synchronisation of the exchange of services. Smart contracts can greatly ease the load on, and in some cases even replace, traditional intermediaries such as banks and stock exchanges. The contracting parties benefit ultimately from the significant reduction in transaction costs.

Smart contracts are especially useful for bulk transactions – one single smart contract, for instance, can perform the task of administering a large number of customer relations. In decentralised networks smart contracts also allow direct business relationships between parties unknown to each other.

Our legal services around smart contracts begin with support when it comes to ‘converting’ contractual arrangements into smart contracts. On behalf of our clients we explore the data protection requirements, the liability risks and the possibilities available to prepare for the contingency of flawed smart contracts, and provide guidance on the matters of risk evaluation and compliance for the use of decentralised platforms. We also assess smart contracts that are intended to be used to process a large volume of transactions from the perspective of the legislation governing general terms and conditions of business. We vet the reliability of individual parties involved and ascertain who is legally answerable for the smart contract in the case of decentralised applications.

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Blockchain technology is laying the foundation for the automation of more and more hitherto human-driven processes. One key element is “smart contracts” – computer protocols that are not only a technical manifestation of contracts, but actually perform them autonomously. While it will continue to be up to natural and legal persons to negotiate the subject matter of their transactions, smart contracts can completely take over the performance of said transactions, greatly simplifying in this way the synchronisation of the exchange of services. Smart contracts can greatly ease the load on, and in some cases even replace, traditional intermediaries such as banks and stock exchanges. The contracting parties benefit ultimately from the significant reduction in transaction costs.

Smart contracts are especially useful for bulk transactions – one single smart contract, for instance, can perform the task of administering a large number of customer relations. In decentralised networks smart contracts also allow direct business relationships between parties unknown to each other.

Our legal services around smart contracts begin with support when it comes to ‘converting’ contractual arrangements into smart contracts. On behalf of our clients we explore the data protection requirements, the liability risks and the possibilities available to prepare for the contingency of flawed smart contracts, and provide guidance on the matters of risk evaluation and compliance for the use of decentralised platforms. We also assess smart contracts that are intended to be used to process a large volume of transactions from the perspective of the legislation governing general terms and conditions of business. We vet the reliability of individual parties involved and ascertain who is legally answerable for the smart contract in the case of decentralised applications.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18797', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Token Sales', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18703', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564585364', 'changed' => '1564652991', 'tnid' => '18349', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564652991', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Token Sales', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Token Sales', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2697', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'token_sales.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://token_sales.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '766347', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

Token sales are one of the most innovative methods of raising funds. In token sales blockchain-based tokens are issued to investors in exchange for national currencies or other tokens.

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Token sales are one of the most innovative methods of raising funds. In token sales blockchain-based tokens are issued to investors in exchange for national currencies or other tokens.

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Token sales are one of the most innovative methods of raising funds. In token sales blockchain-based tokens are issued to investors in exchange for national currencies or other tokens. Depending on their form, tokens can also represent regulated financial instruments. Especially with what are known as security token offerings (STOs), traditional securities are actually issued in the form of tokens. But (supposed) utility tokens can also qualify as regulated instruments, meaning, in particular, that prospectus obligations must be observed. The question of whether a prospectus needs to be prepared and, if so, in what form, depends not only on the token, but also on the audience targeted by the offer of sale. In some cases there may also be authorisation requirements under regulatory and merger control law. If the issue is properly designed, the regulatory requirements can be reduced or downgraded.

Gleiss Lutz provides guidance on all aspects of token sales, starting with the design of the token right through to organising the issue and dealing with the matter of the taxation of the proceeds. We advise on prospectus and/or authorisation obligations and on the avoidance of said obligations and take care of getting the project cleared by the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin). We also assist issuers when it comes to complying with the registration requirements under corporate law as regards the tokenisation of shares and the antitrust and merger control requirements and provide guidance on the development of innovative design options in this area, whilst never losing sight of all the data protection, IP and IT implications of token sales and the tax implications of the proceeds from the issue.

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Token sales are one of the most innovative methods of raising funds. In token sales blockchain-based tokens are issued to investors in exchange for national currencies or other tokens. Depending on their form, tokens can also represent regulated financial instruments. Especially with what are known as security token offerings (STOs), traditional securities are actually issued in the form of tokens. But (supposed) utility tokens can also qualify as regulated instruments, meaning, in particular, that prospectus obligations must be observed. The question of whether a prospectus needs to be prepared and, if so, in what form, depends not only on the token, but also on the audience targeted by the offer of sale. In some cases there may also be authorisation requirements under regulatory and merger control law. If the issue is properly designed, the regulatory requirements can be reduced or downgraded.

Gleiss Lutz provides guidance on all aspects of token sales, starting with the design of the token right through to organising the issue and dealing with the matter of the taxation of the proceeds. We advise on prospectus and/or authorisation obligations and on the avoidance of said obligations and take care of getting the project cleared by the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin). We also assist issuers when it comes to complying with the registration requirements under corporate law as regards the tokenisation of shares and the antitrust and merger control requirements and provide guidance on the development of innovative design options in this area, whilst never losing sight of all the data protection, IP and IT implications of token sales and the tax implications of the proceeds from the issue.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18799', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Token Tax', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18705', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564585821', 'changed' => '1564652974', 'tnid' => '18345', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564652974', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Token Tax', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Token Tax', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2698', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'token_tax.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://token_tax.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '632469', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

The taxation of cryptocurrencies is a very important matter for both investors and issuers. For the tax burden is generally a deciding factor for the profitability of an investment.

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The taxation of cryptocurrencies is a very important matter for both investors and issuers. For the tax burden is generally a deciding factor for the profitability of an investment.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

The taxation of cryptocurrencies is a very important matter for both investors and issuers. For the tax burden is generally a deciding factor for the profitability of an investment.

How the tax authorities treat tokens for income tax purposes depends, among other things, on whether the tokens were acquired through mining or by investing capital and on whether they are held by the respective investor as business or private assets. On the other hand, the VAT treatment of tokens is based on their exact structure. According to a decision of the ECJ from 2015 (C-264/14), if they are structured as such, bitcoins can be treated like legal tender so that bitcoin transactions are in principle tax-free.

We provide issuers, dealers and investors with extensive advice on all tax-related aspects of the acquisition, holding and sale of bitcoins and other tokens. Our tax lawyers also provide advice in connection with the structuring of token issues and investments.

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The taxation of cryptocurrencies is a very important matter for both investors and issuers. For the tax burden is generally a deciding factor for the profitability of an investment.

How the tax authorities treat tokens for income tax purposes depends, among other things, on whether the tokens were acquired through mining or by investing capital and on whether they are held by the respective investor as business or private assets. On the other hand, the VAT treatment of tokens is based on their exact structure. According to a decision of the ECJ from 2015 (C-264/14), if they are structured as such, bitcoins can be treated like legal tender so that bitcoin transactions are in principle tax-free.

We provide issuers, dealers and investors with extensive advice on all tax-related aspects of the acquisition, holding and sale of bitcoins and other tokens. Our tax lawyers also provide advice in connection with the structuring of token issues and investments.

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stdClass::__set_state(array( 'vid' => '18793', 'uid' => '230', 'title' => 'Work 4.0', 'log' => '', 'status' => '1', 'comment' => '0', 'promote' => '0', 'sticky' => '0', 'nid' => '18699', 'type' => 'artikel_digitale_transformation', 'language' => 'en', 'created' => '1564578603', 'changed' => '1564652945', 'tnid' => '18344', 'translate' => '0', 'revision_timestamp' => '1564652945', 'revision_uid' => '230', 'field_mandatnews_ueberschrift' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => 'Work 4.0', 'format' => NULL, 'safe_value' => 'Work 4.0', ), ), ), 'field_bild' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2699', 'uid' => '230', 'filename' => 'work4_0.jpg', 'uri' => 'public://work4_0.jpg', 'filemime' => 'image/jpeg', 'filesize' => '375312', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567840499', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 445, 'width' => 1000, ), 'height' => '445', 'width' => '1000', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_datum' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '2019-08-01 00:00:00', 'timezone' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'timezone_db' => 'Europe/Berlin', 'date_type' => 'datetime', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_teasertext' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

The continuing digitalisation and automation of business processes has already changed the work culture in many areas. Work 4.0 demands increased flexibility and agility of operations and staff to keep businesses competitive.

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The continuing digitalisation and automation of business processes has already changed the work culture in many areas. Work 4.0 demands increased flexibility and agility of operations and staff to keep businesses competitive.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_text' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'value' => '

The continuing digitalisation and automation of business processes has already changed the work culture in many areas. Work 4.0 demands increased flexibility and agility of operations and staff to keep businesses competitive. The legal challenges these developments raise from the employment perspective are many and varied: Modern forms of employment such as crowdworking and the on-demand economy are distinct from personnel leasing and false self-employment. Creative working (hours) arrangements are called for to facilitate flexible, mobile working and at the same time meet health and safety and working hours requirements.

The introduction of innovative processes under the heading of Work 4.0 can trigger extensive negotiations with the works council. Where agile teams are formed and members change roles, hierarchical boundaries fall; traditional remuneration structures need to be adjusted to reflect the new workplace realities. Last but not least, it is important to consider the increasing psychological strain on workers and the new division of labour between man and machine through the prism of health and safety.

The members of our employment practice group support companies not only in their everyday business, but above all in the context of the strategic topics thrown up by the 4.0 working environment. We hold talks with employee representatives to discuss measures for the continued digitalisation of companies, such as the introduction of new working processes and the operational changes these will involve, and develop future-proof concepts together with our clients. In interdisciplinary teams we offer highly-qualified advice on all topics that have common ground between employment and, e.g., data protection and intellectual property legislation. We make the most of Gleiss Lutz’s full service approach for the benefit of our clients.

', 'format' => 'full_html', 'safe_value' => '

The continuing digitalisation and automation of business processes has already changed the work culture in many areas. Work 4.0 demands increased flexibility and agility of operations and staff to keep businesses competitive. The legal challenges these developments raise from the employment perspective are many and varied: Modern forms of employment such as crowdworking and the on-demand economy are distinct from personnel leasing and false self-employment. Creative working (hours) arrangements are called for to facilitate flexible, mobile working and at the same time meet health and safety and working hours requirements.

The introduction of innovative processes under the heading of Work 4.0 can trigger extensive negotiations with the works council. Where agile teams are formed and members change roles, hierarchical boundaries fall; traditional remuneration structures need to be adjusted to reflect the new workplace realities. Last but not least, it is important to consider the increasing psychological strain on workers and the new division of labour between man and machine through the prism of health and safety.

The members of our employment practice group support companies not only in their everyday business, but above all in the context of the strategic topics thrown up by the 4.0 working environment. We hold talks with employee representatives to discuss measures for the continued digitalisation of companies, such as the introduction of new working processes and the operational changes these will involve, and develop future-proof concepts together with our clients. In interdisciplinary teams we offer highly-qualified advice on all topics that have common ground between employment and, e.g., data protection and intellectual property legislation. We make the most of Gleiss Lutz’s full service approach for the benefit of our clients.

', ), ), ), 'field_mandatnews_ref_anw' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'nid' => '3475', ), 1 => array ( 'nid' => '3493', ), ), ), 'field_icon' => array ( 'und' => array ( 0 => array ( 'fid' => '2594', 'uid' => '1', 'filename' => 'work4_0.png', 'uri' => 'public://work4_0.png', 'filemime' => 'image/png', 'filesize' => '6601', 'status' => '1', 'timestamp' => '1567829687', 'type' => 'image', 'field_file_image_alt_text' => array ( ), 'field_file_image_title_text' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( ), 'metadata' => array ( 'height' => 450, 'width' => 450, ), 'height' => '450', 'width' => '450', 'alt' => '', 'title' => '', ), ), ), 'field_podcasts' => array ( ), 'rdf_mapping' => array ( 'rdftype' => array ( 0 => 'sioc:Item', 1 => 'foaf:Document', ), 'title' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'dc:title', ), ), 'created' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'dc:date', 1 => 'dc:created', ), 'datatype' => 'xsd:dateTime', 'callback' => 'date_iso8601', ), 'changed' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'dc:modified', ), 'datatype' => 'xsd:dateTime', 'callback' => 'date_iso8601', ), 'body' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'content:encoded', ), ), 'uid' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'sioc:has_creator', ), 'type' => 'rel', ), 'name' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'foaf:name', ), ), 'comment_count' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'sioc:num_replies', ), 'datatype' => 'xsd:integer', ), 'last_activity' => array ( 'predicates' => array ( 0 => 'sioc:last_activity_date', ), 'datatype' => 'xsd:dateTime', 'callback' => 'date_iso8601', ), ), 'path' => array ( 'pathauto' => '1', ), 'translations' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'original' => NULL, 'data' => array ( ), )), 'name' => 'schuele', 'picture' => '0', 'data' => 'a:5:{s:16:"ckeditor_default";s:1:"t";s:20:"ckeditor_show_toggle";s:1:"t";s:14:"ckeditor_width";s:4:"100%";s:13:"ckeditor_lang";s:2:"en";s:18:"ckeditor_auto_lang";s:1:"t";}', ))

Digitalisation is THE buzzword in politics, business and society – there is hardly an area of life that is not affected by technological progress. Whether medtech, home automation, big data or data protection, every individual, and every company too, faces different new questions and challenges triggered by the digital transformation.

Many of these challenges are of a legal nature, for the technical possibilities are often far ahead of the legislator. Our Digital Future focus area addresses the most important current digitalisation issues, takes a look at the key legal questions for companies and introduces our range of services from AI to Work 4.0.

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